Contents

About this site

Download the Cyclopedia

Awards

Links

Index

Q W E R T Y U I O P

A S D F G H J K L

Z X C V B N M

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Troy Weightis used by jewellers and at the Mint. Its denominations are the pound, lb., = 12 ounces = 5,760 grains; ounce, oz., = 480 grains; and pennyweight, dwt., = 24 grains.

Apothecaries' Weightis used in prescribing and dispensing medicines, and in chemical and pharmaceutical operations generally. It is the official standard of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. The British Pharmacopoeia uses the avoirdupois pound and ounce; hence the two agree only in the grain measure. The denominations of apothecaries' weight are the pound, lb, = 12 ounces = 5,760 grains; the ounce, oj, = 8 drachms = 480 grains; the drachm, dj, = 3 scruples = 60 grains; the scruple, sj, = 20 grains; and the grain, gr.Avoirdupois Weight is the commercial weight, and is generally employed in the receipts in this volume. Its pound, lb., = 16 ounces, oz., = 7,000 grains. The ounce contains 437.5 grains. The apothecaries' or troy ounce contains 42 1/2 grains more than the avoirdupois ounce, and the apothecaries or troy pound contains 1.240 grains less than the commercial or avoirdupois pound. The troy pound contains 12 oz., the avoirdupois 16 oz.

RELATIVE VALUE OF TROY AND AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHTS.

Useful in determining the troy weight of silver by ordinary weights.1 lb. troy = 0.822857 lb. av. = 13 oz. 72.5 grs.

1 lb. avoirdupois = 1.215277 lb. troy = 1 lb. 2 oz. 280 grs.

UNITED STATES COINS

Are convenient standards of weight. Those of gold are to be preferred, and when new will rarely be found to vary more than the tenth of a grain from the following weights:

Double eagle, $20, weighs 516 grs. Eagle, $10, " 258 " Half eagle, $5, " 129 " Quarter eagle, $2 50, " 64 1/2 " Three dollar, $3, " 77.4 " One dollar, $1, " 25.8 "

MEASURES OF CAPACITY FOR LIQUIDS.

In the United States the old wine gallon (Cong.), of 231 cubic inches = 58,328.8 grains of water at 60°, is used. In England the Imperial gallon of 277.274 cubic inches = 70,000 grains = 10 lb. av. is used. The minim of the former = 0.95 gr., of the latter= 0.91 gr. The former contains 16 fluidounces to the pint (O.), the latter 20. The following tables give the value of each in grains of pure water, at 60°.

THE DECIMAL SYSTEM,

Adopted in France and on the Continent, is used in this country in scientific research. The standard of length is the metre (1/10,000,000 of a quadrant of the earth's meridian), which is equal (as corrected by Prof. Bache) to 39.36850535 inches, or, roughly, about 3 1/4 feet. This, as well as the measures of capacity and weight, is increased or divided decimally. The prefixes aredeca(10 times),hecto(100 times),kilo( 1000 times), andmyria(10,000 times);deci(1/10),centi(1/100),milli(1/1000). The kilometre is equal to about two-thirds of a mile.The cubic decimetre is the unit of capacity, and is called a litre, and is equal to 1.765 imperial pints, or 2.1135 wine pints (the latter are used in the United States). The weight of 1 litre of water at 39.10°, is called a kilogramme, and that of a millilitre of water a gramme = 15.434 grains. The kilogramme is rather less than 2 1/4 lbs. avoirdupois. The metrical pound of France is half a kilogramme. One fluidounce equals in capacity 29.53 cubic centimetres.

Comparative Table of Decimal with Avoirdupois and Apothecaries' (U. S.) Weights.

* Abbreviated kilo.

Name. Equivalent in Grammes. Equivalent in Grains. Equivalent in Avoirdupois. Equivalent in Apothecaries' Weight, (U.S.P.)

Milligramme = Centigramme = Decigramme = Gramme = Decagramme = Hectogramme = Kilogramme* = Myriagramme =

.001 .01 .1 1. 10. 100. 1,000. 10,000.

.0154 .1543 1.5434 15.434 154.3402 1543.4023 15434.0234 154340.2344 lb. oz. gr. 0 1/4 .45 3 1/2 12.152 2 3 1/4 12.173 22 0 3/4 12. lb. oz. dr. gr. 1.5 15.4 2 34.0 3 1 43.0 2 8 1 14. 26 9 4 20.

Comparison of Decimal Measures of Capacity with Wine ( U. S. P.) and Imperial Measures.

Wine Measure.

Eng. Cubic Inches. Apothecaries' or Wine Measures. Millilitre 0.061028 = 16.2318 minims. Centilitre 0.610280 = 2.7053 fluidrachms. Decilitre 6.102800 = 3.3816 fluidounces. Litre 61.028000 = 2.1135 pints. Decalitre 610.280000 = 2.6419 gallons. Hectolitre 6102.800000 Kilolitre 61028.000000

Imperial Measure.

1 litre = 0.22017 galls., 0.88066 qts., 1.76133 pts. Stere (cubic metre) = 220.16643 galls.

CAPACITY OF BOXES.

Dry Measure.

A box 20 inches square, and 16 1/8 inches deep, will contain 1 barrel (3 bushels).A box 15 inches square, and 14 1/3 inches deep will contain half a barrel.

A box 17 inches by 14 inches, and 9 inches deep, will contain 1 bushel.

A box 10 inches by 12 inches, and 9 inches deep, will contain half a bushel.

A box 8 inches square, and 8 3/8 inches deep, will contain 1 peck.

A box 8 inches square, and 4 3/16 inches deep, will contain 1 gallon (dry) = 1/8 bushel = 268 3/4 cubic inches.

A box 4 inches square, and 4 3/32 inches deep, will contain 1 quart

LINEAR MEASUREMENT.

12 inches = 1 foot.

3 feet = 1 yard.

1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet = 63,360 inches.

Inches expressed in Decimals of a Foot.

1 inch = 0.08333 foot 2 inches = 0.16666 " 3 " = 0.25000 " 4 " = 0.33333 " 5 " = 0.41666 " 6 " = 0.50000 "

7 inchs = 0.58333 foot 8 " = 0.66666 " 9 " = 0.75000 " 10 " = 0.83333 " 11 " = 0.91666 " 12 " = 1.00000 "

Fractions of an Inch expressed in Decimals of an Inch, and in Decimals of a Foot.

Inch. Dec. of an 1nch. Dec. of a foot. 1/16 = 0.0625 = 0.0052083 1/8 = 0.1250 = 0.0104166 3/16 = 0.1875 = 0.0156249 1/4 = 0.2500 = 0.0288332 5/16 = 0.3125 = 0.0260415 3/8 = 0.3750 = 0.0312498 7/16 = 0.4375 = 0.0364581 1/2 = 0.5000 = 0.0416664

Inch. Dec. of an 1nch. Dec. of a foot. 9/16 = 0.5625 = 0.0468747 5/8 = 0.6250 = 0.0520833 11/16 = 0.6875 = 0.0572913 3/4 = 0.7500 = 0.0624996 13/16 = 0.8125 = 0.0677079 7/8 = 0.8750 = 0.0729162 15/16 = 0.9375 = 0.0781245 16/16 = 1. = 0.0833328

1.In a right-angled triangle the sum of the squares of the two shorter sides = the square of the hypothenuse: the square of the hypothenuse less the square of one side = the square of the third side.

2.The diameter of a circle X 3.1416 = the circumference.

3.The circumference of a circle X 0.31831 = the diameter.

4.Given a chord and versed sine -- to find the diameter of the circle. Divide the square of half the chord by the versed sine, and add the versed sine to the product = the diameter.

5.To find the length of an arc of a circle, when the cord of the whole arc and the chord of one half of the arc are known, from 8 times the chord of one-half the arc, subtract the chord of the whole arc: one-third of the remainder will be the length of the arc nearly.

6.Periphery of an elipse. Multiply the square root of the sum of the squares of the axes by 2.22.

144 square inches = 1 square foot. SURFACE MEASUREMENT.

Areas. - Product of two Linear Dimensions (proportioned to the squares of similar sides).9 square feet = 1 square yard.

Acre = 43,560 square feet = 4480 yards = (660 X 66 feet).

Square mile = 640 acres.

1.Parallelogram (squares rectangular or rhomboidal) = the product of the length of one side X by perpendicular height.

2.Triangle = product of base X by one-half the perpendicular height.

3.Triangle - Area from 3 sides given. From the half sum of the three sides subtract each side separately; multiply the half sum and the three remainders together, and the square root of the product will be the area.

4.Trapezoid = the sum of the two parallel sides X by half the perpendicular height.

5.Circle = the square of the diameter X 0.7854, or square of the circumference X 0.07958.

6.Sector of a Circle = radius of the circle X by onehalf the arc of the sector.

7.Segment of a Circle. - Find the area of a sector of a circle having the same arc, and deduct the triangle formed between the two radii and the chord of the arc.

Superficial Area of Solids.

8.Cube.

9.Parallelopipidon.

10.Prism.## } = {

Sum of area of sides and bases.

11.Cylinder = circumference of base X height + area of bases.

12.Cone.

13.Pyramid.## } = {

Circumference of bases X one-half slant height + area of base. Sphere = square of diameter X 3.1416.

French square metre, 1550.85 square inches = 10.7698 square feet.

SOLID MEASUREMENT.

Cubic Content. - Product of three Linear Dimensions (proportional to cube of similar sides).

Cubic foot = 1,728 cubic in. Cubic yard = 27 cubic ft. = 46,656 " Barrel = 4.8125 " = 8,316 " Bushel = 1.2438 " = 2,150 " Gallon (wine) = 231 "

Ton = 2240 lbs. avoirdupois.1 gallon of water weighs 58,328.8 grains troy = 10.126 lbs. troy.

Cylindrical inches X .0004546 = cubic feet. " feet X .02909 = " yards. Cubic inches X .00058 = " feet. " feet X .03704 = " yards. " feet X 7.48 = U. S. States gallon. " inches X .0004329 = " " Cylindrical feet X 5.874 = " " " inches X .0034 = " "

Contents of Casks.- Add into one sum 39 times the square of the bung diameter, 25 times the square of the head diameter, and 26 times the product of the two diameters; then multiply the sum by the length, and the product again by 24/2 for wine gallons.

General Rule for finding Cubic Content contained between two Parallel planes.

Let A and B be areas of ends of solids, and C the area of a section parallel to, and equidistant from the ends, and L the distance between the ends:

A + B + 4 CSolidity = 6 X L.

1.Cube = side X side X side, or = area of base X perpendicular height.

2.

Parallelopipidon

Prism

Cylinder## } = {

Area of base X by perpendicular height.

3.

Cone

Pyramid## } = {

Area of base X by 1/3 the perpendicular height.

4.Frustrum of Cone or Pyramid= sum of the areas of the two ends + the square root of their product X by 1/3 of the perpendicular height.

5.Sphere= cube of the diameter X 0.5236.

6.Spherical Segment= 3 times the square of the radius of its base + the square of its height X the height X 0.5s36.

MEASUREMENT OF STONE-WORK.

1. Perch, Masons' or Quarrymen's Measure.

16 1/2 feet long,

16 inches wide,

12 inches high.## } = {

22 cubic feet.

To be measured in wall.16 1/2 feet long,

18 inches wide,

12 inches high.## } = {

24.75 cubic feet.

To be measured in pile.

1 cubic yard = 3 feet X 3 feet X 3 feet = 27 cubic feet.The cubic yard has become the standard for all contract work of late years.

Stone walls less than 16 inches thick count as if 16 inches thick to mason; over 16 inches thick each inch additional is measured.

Bricks required for Walls of various Thickness. - Number for each Square Foot of Face of Wall.

Thickness of wall. 4 inches 7 1/8 8 " 15 12 " 22 1/2 16 " 30 20 " 37 1/2

Thickness of wall. 24 inches 46 28 " 52 1/2 32 " 60 36 " 67 1/2 42 " 75

Cubic yard = 600 bricks in wall.Perch (22 cubic feet) = 500 bricks in wall.

To pave 1 sq. yard on flat requires 41 bricks.

To pave 1 sq. yard on edge requires 68 bricks.

BOARD MEASURE.

Boards are sold by superficial measure at so much per foot of 1 inch or less in thickness, adding one-fourth to the price for each quarter-inch thickness over an inch.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY.

In ordinary language the terms density and specific gravity (s. g.) are used to represent the relative weights of equal bulks or volumes of different substances. In order to compare these conveniently, pure water at 60° is taken as the standard. A cubic foot of water weighs 100 oz., hence to determine the weight of a given bulk of any body the specific gravity of which is known, multiply the cubic content in feet by 1000, and this by the s. g., and the product will be the weight in ounces avoirdupois. Thus, the s. g. of cast-iron is 7.207, that is, it is 7.207 times heavier than an equal bulk of water. A cylinder of cast-iron 1 foot in diameter and 10 feet high, would contain 10 cubic feet, 10 X 1000 X 7.207 = 72.070 oz. = 4500 lbs.

Specific Gravity of Solids.

1.By the Pitcher.- Fill a pitcher, or similar vessel, brim full; put in the body; it will displace its own bulk of water; catch this water as it overflows and weigh it. Divide the weight of the body by that of the water displaced, the quotient will be its specific gravity. A very neat instrument for performing this process accurately has been contrived by Messrs. Eckfeldt and Dubois, of the United States Mint.

2.By the Hydrostatic Balance.- Weigh the body, fasten it, preferably by a horse-hair, immerse it in water, and note the loss of weight. The weight in air divided by the loss of weight in water = the s. g.

3.When the Body is Lighter than Water.- Attach to it some heavy body of known weight in air and water. Weigh the two together, first in air and then in water, note the loss. The loss of weight of the heavy body in water being known the difference between these losses divided into the weight of the light body in air, will give the specific gravity. Thus, a bit of wood weighed in air 200 grains, attached to a piece of copper the two weighed in air 2247 grains, and in water 1620 grains suffering a loss of 627 grains, the copper alone loses in water 230 grains, 627 - 230 = 397, the loss of the wood; 200/397 = 0.504, s. g. of the wood.

When the Solid is Soluble in Water.

Take its s. g. in regard to some liquid which does not dissolve it, multiply this by the s. g. of the liquid.Thus, a piece of sugar weighed in air 400 grs. it lost in oil of turpentine 217.5. 400/217.5 = 1.84. The s. g. of turpentine is .87; 1.84 X .87 = 1.6., s. g. of the sugar.

When the Body is in Powder.

Introduce it into a counterpoise bottle, of which the capacity is known. Fill the bottle with pure water at 60°. It will hold as much less as is equal to the bulk of the powder, and the weight of the powder in air divided by this difference will give the s. g.Thus, the bottle holds 1000 grs. of water, 100 grs. of emery are introduced, and the bottle filled up with water. If no water were displaced the two should weigh 1100 grs., they really weigh 1070; the difference, 30 grs. = the weight of water displaced; 100/30 = 3.333, s. g of the emery.

When the Solid is Compound.

As a nugget of gold and quartz. Take the s. g. of the nugget, that of gold and quartz being known, then apply the following formulae:

X weight of nugget = weight of gold in nugget.

s. g. nugget - s. g. quartz

s. g. gold -s. g. quartzX s. g. gold

s. g. nuggetX weight of nugget

= weight of quartz in do.

s. g. gold - s. g. nugget

s. g. gold -s. g. quartzX s. g. quartz

s. g. nuggetThis method will do approximately, but not accurately for alloys of metals generally.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF LIQUIDS.

By the Balance.

Take a bit of glass rod, note its loss when weighed in water and in the liquid under trial. Divide the latter by the former, the quotient will be the s. g. of the liquid. Thus a glass rod loses in water 171 grs., in alcohol, 143 grs. 143/171 = .836. s. g. of the alcohol.

Specific Gravity bottles.

These are made to hold 100 or 1000 grs. of pure water at 60°, and are accompanied by a counterpoise. It is only necessary to fill the bottle with the liquid to be tested. Counterpoise and weigh; the weight in grains will be the s. g. Oily and viscous matter should never be introduced into the s. g. bottle. In case the s. g. bottle is not at hand any light flask will do. Make a file mark on the neck, counterpoise it, fill to the mark with pure water at 60, note the weight of the water. Empty, dry thoroughly and fill with the liquid to be tested; the weight of this divided by that of the water = s. g.

Hydrometers

Are instruments for determining the specific gravity of liquids by noting the depth to which a stem sinks. They consist of a cylinder with a weight beneath it to make it float upright, and a graduated stem. When intended for liquids lighter than water, the 0 or point at which they float in pure water at 60° is at the lower point of the stem, and as the liquid is lighter they sink more deeply; for liquids heavier than water the 0 is at the top of the scale. Many are graduated according to their proposed use, as alcoholometers, lactometers, sacharometers. (see DISTILLATION). The graduation most employed is that of Beaume. Excellent hydrometers with the degrees and the true s. g. on the same stem are made by Dr. W. H. Pile of Philadelphia.

To Convert Degrees Beaume into Specific Gravity.

1.For liquids heavier than water - Subtract the degree B. from 145, and divide into 145, the quotient is the s. g.

2.For liquids lighter than water - Add the degree B. to 130, and divide it into 140. The quotient is the s. g.

To Convert Specific Gravity into Degrees Beaume.

1.For liquids heavier than water. - Divide the s. g. into 145, and subtract from 145. The remainder is the degree B.

2.For liquids lighter than water. - Divide the s. g. into 140 and subtract 130 from the quotient. The remainder will be the degree B.

Table of Specific Gravity.

Mercury 13,600 Lead 11,325 Copper 9,000 Cast Brass 8,000 Steel 7,850 Wrought Iron 7,780 Cast Iron 7,207 Tin 7,300 Marble 2,690 Common Stone 2,520 Brick 2,000 Soil 1,974 Coal, anthracite 1,640 Coal, bituminous 1,270 Sand 1,620 Sea-water 1,030 COMMON WATER 1,000 Oak, (dry) 925 Ash 800 Maple 755 Elm 600 Yellow Pine 660 White Pine 554 Cork 249 Carb. Acid 1.9 Air 1.25 Coal Gas 0.6 Hydrogen 0.0848

The specific gravity in table also represents the number of ounces in each substance in 1 cubic foot / 16 = lbs.

1 cubic foot of Cast Iron = 450 lbs. 1 " White Pine = 34.6 " 1 " Water = 62.5 " 10.9 " Air = 1 " 22 " Coal Gas = 1 " GAS.

The figures on the index at the right hand denote even hundreds. When the hand completes the entire circle it denotes ten hundred, and is registered by the hand in the centre circle, pointing to one - each figure in the centre circle being a thousand - this entire circle being ten thousand is registered on the index of the left hand circle by the hand, there denoting by each figure, ten thousand.The quantity of gas which passes through the meter, is ascertained by reading from the index at the time the amount is required to be known and deducting therefrom the quantity shown bythe index at a previous observation.

If the whole is registered by the hands on the three circles above, it indicates; 49,900

Amount at previous observation, as shown by the dotted lines; 42,500

Shows amount which passed through since last taken off; 7,400

The register at all times shows the quantity that has passed through since the meter was first set, by deducting from which the amount that has been paid for (without any regard to the time when), shows that the difference remains unpaid.

To Avoid Waste of Gas.

Turn the gas partly off at the meter; much gas is burned to waste by too great pressure in certain localities. In buildings of any size a good regulator will soon pay for itself. Cresson's is the best.

Gas-burners.

The following are those in common use:

Batswing.- This has a single slit at the top of the burner. It is very steady, does not change its form under any pressure. It is, therefore, used in street lamps. It is not, however, economical.

Fish-tail.- This form is generally used in houses; it has two openings in the top, from which the jets of gas issue and form a flat flame, the plane of which is at right angles to that of the openings. When the pressure is too great the flame elongates and sings, thus calling attention to the waste. It is an economical burner, but flickers. This unsteadiness is trying to the eyes, and the fish-tail should never be used to read or write by.

Argand.- These are the steadiest and most economical burners, but require a chimney. The gas is allowed to escape by a ring of holes, and the air is admitted both inside and outside of this ring. In the patent Argand the outer ring of air passes through a series of small openings, and the inner ring is deflected into the flame by a button; It requires a swelled chimney. By cutting off the button a steadier light is obtained, and the economy is nearly the same; straight chimneys are more easily obtained than the others. The best flint-glass chimneys are in the end the cheapest; great loss of light ensues if they are not kept clean. But putting a chimney into hydrant-water, and gradually heating it, it may be cleaned safely; paper gives the best finish. The larger the burner the greater the relative economy.

Relative Light for Unit of Gas.

Batswing consuming 5 feet, 1.000 Large patent Argand burner consuming 6 feet, 2.880 Common Argand consuming 5.4 feet, 2.132 Single jet consuming 2.2 feet, 1.191 Fish-tail (Union jet) consuming 4.5 feet, 1.513 Large Batswing consuming 11.3 feet, 2.03 Wax candle, 4 to lb. 0.143 Sperm candle, 6 to lb. 0.111 Tallow candle, 5 to lb. 0.1

Photometry.

1 wax candle, 4 to a lb. burns 13 hours. 1 spermaceti candle, 6 to a lb. burns 8 hours. 1 Tallow candle, 6 to a lb. burns 6 hours.

A STATEMENT OF FOREIGN GOLD AND SILVER COINS, FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE MINT.

Explanatory Remarks.

The first column embraces the names of the countries where the coins are issued, the second contains the names of the coin, only the principal denominations being given. The other sizes are proportional; and when this is not the case, the deviation is stated.The third column expresses the weight of a single piece in fractions of the Troyounce, carried to the thousandth, and in a few cases to the ten thousandth, of an ounce. The method is preferable to expressing the weight in grains for commercial purposes, and corresponds better with the terms of the Mint. It may be readily transferred to weight in grains by the following rule: Remove the decimal point, from one-half deduct four per cent. of that half, and the remainder will be grains.

The fourth column expresses the fineness in thousands, i. e., the number of parts of pure gold or silver in 1000 parts of the coin.

The fifth column expresses the valuation of coin. The value of silver fluctuates.

Gold Coins.

Country.Denominations.Weight.

Oz. Dec.Fineness.

Thous.Value.

1864.Australia Pound of 1852 0.281 916.5 $ 5.32.37 " Sovereign, 1855-60 0.256.5 916 4.85.58 Austria Ducat 0.112 986 2.28.28 " Souverain 0.363 900 6.75.35 " New Union Crown (assumed) 0.357 900 6.64.19 Belgium Twenty-five Francs 0.254 899 4.72.03 Bolivia Doubloon 0.867 870 15.59.25 Brazil Twenty Milreis 0.575 917.5 10.90.57 Central America Two Escudos 0.209 853.5 3.68.75 Chili Old Doubloon 0.867 870 15.59.26 " Ten Pesos 0.492 900 9.15.35 Denmark Ten Thaler 0.427 895 7.90.01 Ecuador Four Escudos 0.433 844 7.55.46 England Pound or Sovereign, new 0.256.7 916.5 4.86.34 " Pound or Sovereign, average 0.256.2 916 4.84.92 France Twenty Francs, new 0.207.5 899.5 3.85.83 " Twenty Francs, average 0.207 899 3.84.69 Germany, North Ten Thaler 0.427 995 7.90.01 " Ten Thaler, Prussian 0.427 903 7.97.07 " Krone (Crown) 0.357 900 6.64.20 Germany, South Ducat 0.112 986 2.28.28 Greece Twenty Drachms 0.185 900 3.44.19 Hindostan Mohur 0.374 916 7.08.18 Italy Twenty Lire 0.207 898 3.84.27 Japan Old Cobang 0.362 568 4.44.0 " New Cobang 0.289 572 3.57.6 Mexico Doubloon, average 0.867.5 866 15.52.98 " Doubloon, new 0.867.5 870.5 15.61.05 Naples Six Ducati, new 0.245 996 5.04.43 Netherland Ten Guilders 0.215 899 3.99.56 New Granada Old Doubloon, Bogota 0.868 870 15.61.06 " Old Doubloon, Popayan 0.867 858 15.37.75 " Ten Pesos new 0.525 891.5 9.67.51 Peru Old Doubloon 0.867 868 15.55.67 Portugal Gold Crown 0.308 912 5.80.66 Prussia New Union Crown (assumed) 0.357 900 6.64.19 Rome Two and a half Scudi, new 0.140 900 2.60.47 Russia Five Roubles 0.210 916 3.97.64 Spain One Hundred Reals 0.268 896 4.96.39 " Eighty Reals 0.215 869.5 3.86.44 Sweden Ducat 0.111 975 2.23.72 Tunis Twenty-five Piastres 0.161 900 2.99.54 Turkey One Hundred Piastres 0.231 915 4.36.93 Tuscany Sequin 0.112 999 2.31.29

Silver Coins.

Country.Denominations.Weight.

Oz. Dec.Fineness.

Thous.Value.

1864.Austria Old Rix Dollar 0.902 833 $ 1.02.27 " Old Scudo 0.836 902 1.02.64 " Florin before 1858 0.451 833 51.14 " New Florin 0.397 900 48.63 " New Union Dollar 0.596 900 73.01 " Maria Theresa Dollar, 1780 0.895 838 1.02.12 Belgium Five Francs 0.803 897 98.04 Bolivia New Dollar 0.643 903.5 79.07 " Half Dollar 0.432 667 39.22 Brazil Double Milreis 0.820 918.5 1.02.53 Canada Twenty Cents 0.150 925 18.87 Central America Dollar 0.866 850 1.00.19 Chili Old Dollar 0.864 908 1.06.79 " New Dollar 0.801 900.5 98.17 Denmark Two Rigsdaler 0.927 877 1.10.65 England Shilling, new 0.182.5 924.5 22.96 " Shilling, average 0.178 925 22.41 France Five Francs, average 0.800 900 98.00 Germany, North Thaler, before 1857 0.712 750 72.67 " New Thaler 0.595 900 72.89 Germany, South Florin, before 1857 0.340 900 41.65 " New Florin (assumed) 0.340 900 41.65 Greece Five Drachms 0.719 900 88.08 Hindostan Rupee 0.374 916 46.62 Japan Itzebu 0.279 991 37.63 " New Itzebu 0.279 890 33.80 Mexico Dollar, new 0.867.5 903 1.06.62 " Dollar, average 0.866 901 1.06.20 Naples Scudo 0.844 830 95.34 Netherlands Two and a half Guild 0.804 944 1.03.31 Norway Specie Daler 0.927 877 1.10.65 New Granada Dollar of 1857 0.803 896 97.92 Peru Old Dollar 0.866 901 1.06.20 " Dollar of 1858 0.766 909 94.77 " Half Dollar, 1835 - '38 0.433 650 38.31 Prussia Thaler before 1857 0.712 750 72.68 " New Thaler 0.595 900 72.89 Rome Scudo 0.864 900 1.05.84 Russia Rouble 0.667 875 79.44 Sardinia Five Lire 0.800 900 98.00 Spain New Pistareen 0.166 899 20.31 Sweden Rix Dollar 1.092 750 1.11.48 Switzerland Two Francs 0.323 899 39.52 Tunis Five Piastres 0.511 898.5 62.49 Turkey Twenty Piastres 0.770 830 86.98 Tuscany Florin 0.220 925 27.60

Index

Q W E R T Y U I O P

A S D F G H J K L

Z X C V B N M