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The Household Cyclopedia


Materials used.

The flowers, roots, and woods employed in perfumery are nearly all grown abroad, and even when raised in the United States are seldom used for perfumery.

Essential or volatile oils (p. 289) are obtained by distillation. In the case of delicate perfumes the flowers are macerated in warm oil or cold lard (enfleurage). From this grease the oil may be extracted by alcohol. Sometimes the flowers or other odorous bodies are macerated in alcohol.

Essences are solutions of volatile oils in alcohol. The term tincture is sometimes used to express the same idea.

The dried flowers and rasped woods or roots are used in the manufacture of sachets.

The following substances are obtained from the animal kingdom: -

Musk, a secretion of the Musk deer (Muschus moschatus), which inhabits Eastern Asia. There are three varieties. The Tonquin or Chinese is the finer, but is apt to be adulterated.

Civet, a secretion of the Civet cat (Viveraa civeta), and

Castor, from the beaver (Castor fiber), are used in small quantities.

The Essence of Mirbane and flavoring ethers are obtained by the chemist.

Lard, suet, and the fixed oils are used as vehicles.

Alcohol employed in perfumery should be free from all smell of fusel or other oils. Atwood's (patent) alcohol is generally preferred. It is deodorized by distillation over permangenate of potassa.

Deodorizing Alcohol.

1. Spirit of wine, brandy, or alcohol distilled over soap lose their empyreumatic odors and tastes entirely. At about 215° the soap retains neither alcohol nor wood-spirit.

2. The empyreumatic oil, which remains in combination with the soap which forms the residue of the distillation, is carried off at a higher temperature by the vapor of water, which is formed during a second distillation, the product of which is a soap free from empyreuma, and fit to be used again for similar purposes.

3. The concentration of the alcohol increases in this operation more than when soap is not employed, because this compound retains the water and the alcoholic vapors which pass over are richer.

4. Thirty-three lbs. of soap is enough for 100 galls. of empyreumatic brandy, and direct experiments have shown that under the most favorable circumstances the soap can retain 20 per cent. of empyreumatic oil.

5. The soap employed should contain no potassa; it must be a hard or soda soap, and ought to be completely free from any excess of fat acids or fluids, otherwise it may render the product rancid and impure. Common soap, made with oleine and soda by the manufacture of stearine candles, has satisfied all the conditions in practice.

If this soap is employed, it will be better to add a little soda during the first distillation.

The hard soda-soaps, as exempt as possible from fluid fat acids, remove completely the empyreumatic odor.

J. Maria Farina Cologne.

Benzoin dissolved in alcohol, 4 oz.; essence of lavender, 8 oz.; essence of rosemary, 4 oz.; alcohol at 75°, 325 qts. To this solution add succesively neroli, 21 oz.; petit grain, 21 oz.; cedrat, 21 oz.; Portugal, 2 1/2 lbs.; lemon, 2 1/2 lbs.; alcoholic extract of geranium, 2 1/2 lbs. Shake several times; leave 14 days, and bottle.

Fine Cologne Water.

Take alcohol at 85, 10 qts.; dissolve in it essence of neroli petit grain, 1/2 oz.; essence of rosemary, 2 1/2 drs.; essence of lavender, 1 1/4 drs.; essence of clove, 1/2 dr.; essence of peppermint, 1/2 dr.; essence of bergamot, 12 1/2 drs.; lemon 12 1/2 drs.; essence of Portugal, 7 1/2 drs.; tincture of benzoin, 1 1/4 drs.

Ordinary Cologne.

Take alcohol at 85° 10 qts.; essence of neroli 1 1/4 drs.; essence of rosemary,, 10 drs.; essence of lavender, 5 drs,; essence of thyme and clove, each 1/2 dr.; essence of lemon, 2 oz.; essence of peppermint, 1/4 dr.; tincture of benzoin, 1 1/4 drs.; rosewater, 2 lbs.

Cheap Cologne.

Take alcohol at 85°, 10 qts.; essence of lemon, 5 oz.; essence of cedrat, 12 1/2 drs.; essence of bergamot, 4 oz.; essence of lavender, 1 oz.; tincture of benzoin, 1 oz.

Recipes for Cologne Water, from Redwood Gray's Supplement.

1. Oil of neroli, 2 drs.; oil of orange-peel, 1/2 oz.; oil of citron, 1 dr.; oil of bergamot, 2 drs.; oil of lavender, oil of rosemary, each 1/2 dr.; oil of cinnamon, 1 scruple; cardamoms, powdered, balsam Peru, each 2 drs.; rectified spirits, 7 lbs. Macerate 10 days; then distill 6 pounds with a gentle heat.

2. Oil of bergamot, 3 oz.; oil of lemon, 2 oz.; oil of lavender, 3 1/2 drs.; oil of neroli. 2 1/2 drs.; oil of origanum, 2 drs., oil of rosemary, 1 dr.; essence of vanilla, 2 drs.; musk, 10 grs.; rectified spirits, 13 pts.; rosewater, 1 qt.; orange-flower water, 1 pt. Mix the oils; dissolve them in 10 pts. of the spirits, then add the musk, and finally the waters, previously mixed with the remainder of the spirits, And, after standing 2 weeks, filter.

Florida Water.

Alcohol at 90°, 50 qts.; essence of lemon and Portugal, each 4 oz.; essence of lavender and clove, each 8 oz.; canella, 1/2 oz.; water, 20 qts.

Hungary Water.

Rectified alcohol, 1 gall.; oil of English rosemary, 2 oz.; oil of lemon-peel, 1 oz.; oil of balm (melissa) 1 oz.; oil of mint, 1/2 dr.; esprit de rose, 1 pt.; extract de fleur d'orange, 1 pt.

Extract of Verbena.

Rectified spirits, 1 pt.; oil of lemon-grass, 3 drs., oil of lemon-peel, 2 oz.; oil of orange-peel, 1/2 oz. After standing together for a few hours, and then filtering, it is fit for sale. Another mixture of this kind, presumed by the public to be made from the same plant, but of a finer quality, is composed thus; it is sold under the title of

Extrait de Verveine.

Rectified spirits, 1 pt.; oil of orange-peel, 1 oz.; oil of lemon-peel, 2 oz.; oil of citron, 1 dr.; oil of lemongrass, 2 1/2 drs.; extrait de fleur d'orange, 7 oz.; extrait de tubereuse, 7 oz.; esprit de rose, 1/2 pt.

Imitation Essence of Wallflower.

Extrait fleur d'orange, 1 pt.; extract of vanilla, 1/2 pt.; esprit de rose, 1 pt.; extract of orris, 1/2 pt.; extract of cassia, 1/2 pt.; essential oil of almonds, 1/4 dr. Allow this mixture to be made for 2 or 3 weeks prior to putting it up for sale.

Imitation Essence of Violet.

Extract of cassia, 1 pt.; extract of rose, tincture of orris, extract of tuberose, each 1/2 pint.

Fleur d'ltalie, or Italian Nosegay.

Esprit de rose, from pomade, 2 pts.; esprit de rose, triple, 1 pt.; esprit de jasmin, esprit de violette, from pomade, each 1 pt.; extract of cassia, 1/2 pt.; extract of musk, extract of Ambergris, each 2 oz.

Jockey Club Bouquet (English formula).

Extract of orris-root, 2 pts.; esprit de rose, triple, 1 pt.; esprit de rose de pomade, 1 pt.; extrait de cassia, extrait de tubereuse, de pomade, each 1/2 pt.; extrait de ambergris, 1/2 pt.; otto of bergamot, 1/2 oz.

Jockey Club Bouquet (French formula).

Esprit de rose, de pomade, 1 pt.; esprit de tubereause, de pomade, 1 pt.; esprit de cassia, de pomade, 1/2 pt.; esprit de jasmin, de pomade, 1/4 pt.; extract of civet, de pomade, 3 oz.

Kew Garden Nosegay.

Esprit de neroli (Petale), 1 pt.; esprit de cassia, esprit de tubereuse, esprit de jasmin, from pomade, each 1/2 pt.; esprit de geranium, 1/2 pt.; esprit de musk, esprit de ambergris, each, 3 oz.

Eau de Milleflowers.

Esprit de rose, triple, 1 pt.; esprit de rose, esprit de tubereuse, esprit de jasmin, esprit de fleur d'orange, esprit de cassia, esprit de violette, esprit de reseda (mignonette), from pomade, each 1/2 pt.; esprit de vanilla, esprit do ambergris, esprit de musk, each 2 oz.; otto of almonds, otto of neroli, otto of cloves, each 10 drops; otto of bergamot, 1 oz. These ingredients are to remain together for at least a fortnight, then filtered prior to sale.

Essence of Rondeletia.

Spirits (brandy 60 o.p.), 1 gall.; otto of lavender, 2 oz., otto of cloves, 1 oz.; otto of rose, 3 drs.; otto of bergamot, 1 oz.; extract of musk, extract of vanilla, extract of ambergris, each 1/4 pt. The mixture must be made at least a month before it is fit for sale. Very excellent rondeletia may also be made with whiskey.

Bouquet Royale.

Extract of rose (from pomade), 1 pt.; esprit de rose (triple), 1/2 pt.; extract of jasmin, extract of violet (from pomade), each 1/2 pt.; extract of verbena, extract of cassia, each 2 1/2 oz.; otto of lemons, otto of bergamot, each 1/2 oz.; extract of musk, extract of ambergris, each 1 oz.


Extract of tuberose, extract of jasmin, extract of cassia, extract of rose (from pomade), each 1 pt.; extract of vanilla, 5 oz.; extract of musk extract of ambergris, each 2 oz.; otto of bergamot, otto of cloves, each 1 dr.

Spring Flowers.

Extract of rose, extract of violet (from pomade), each 1 pt.; extract of rose (triple), 2 1/2 oz.; extract of cassia, 2 1/2 oz.; otto of bergamot, 2 drs.; extract of ambergris, 1 oz.

Bouquet de Caroline, also called Bouquet des Delices.

Extrait de rose, extrait de violette, extrait de tubereuse (from pomade), each 1 pt.; extract of orris, extract of ambergris, each 1/2 pt.; otto of bergamot, otto of Limette, otto of cedrat, each 1/4 oz..

Esterhazy Bouquet.

Extrait de fluer d'orange (from pomade), 1 pt.; esprit de rose (triple), 1 pt.; extract of vitivert, extract of vanilla, extract of orris, extract of tonquin, each 1 pt.; esprit de neroli 1 pt.; extract of ambergris, 1/2 pt.; otto of santal, 1/2 dr.; otto of cloves, 1/2 dr.

Essence of Bouquet.

Esprit de rose (triple), 1 pt.; extract of vanilla, 2 oz.; extract of orris, 8 oz.; otto of lemons, 1/4 oz.; otto of bergamot, 1 oz.

American Shampoo Liquor.

Rum, 3 qts.; spirit of wine, 1 pt.; water, 1 pt.; tincture of cantharides, 1/2 oz., carbonate of ammonia, 1/2 oz., salt of tartar, 1 oz. Rub it on, and afterwards wash with water. By omitting the salt of tartar it nearly resembles Balm of Columbia

Glycerine and Cantharides Lotion.

Rosemary water, 1 gall.; spirits of sal volatile, 1 oz.; tincture of cantharides, 2 oz.; glycerine, 4 oz. To be used with a sponge or soft brush twice a day when the hair is falling off.

Dupuytren's Pomade.

Tincture of cantharides (1 part flies to 8 of proof spirit), purified beef marrow, each 1 oz.; sugar of lead, 1 dr.; balsam of Peru, 3 drs.; oils of cloves and canella, each 15 drops. Used to prevent baldness, and restore the hair.

Eau Lustrule.

Castor oil (deodorized), 2 1/2 lbs.; strongest alcohol (deodorized), 2 1/2 lbs.; cantharides, in powder, 1/2 oz.; oil of bergamot 2 1/2 oz.; otto of roses, 20 drops. Mix; let them stand a few days, and filter. To soften the hair, and prevent baldness.

Honey-water for the Hair.

Honey, 4 lbs.; very dry sand, 5 lbs. Mix and put into a vessel that will hold 5 times as much; distill with a gentle heat a yellowish acid water.

Vegetable Hair Wash.

Southernwood 2 oz.; box-leaves, 6 oz.; water, 4 pts. Boil gently for 1/4 of an hour, strain, and to each pint of the liquid add 2 oz. spirit of rosemary, and 1/2 dr. of salt of tartar, or 1 dr. of Naples soap.

Borax Hair Wash.

Borax, 1 oz.; camphor, 1/2 oz.; boiling water, 1 qt. When cold filter for use.

Excellent Hair Wash.

Sufficient liquid ammonia added to a pint of water to make the whole pungent. Be careful not to have it too strong. Afterwards wash with clean water.

To Cleanse Long Hair.

Beat up the yolk of an egg with a pint of soft water. Apply it warm, and afterwards wash it out with warm water.


Is usually made by infusing quince-seeds. It may also be made by boiling a tablespoonful of unbruised flaxseed in a pint of water for 5 minutes and straining. It is sometimes made by dissolving gum arabic or gum tragacanth in water. About 4 oz. gum arabic or 1 oz. gum tragacanth to the pint.

Twigg's Hair-Dye.

Sugar of lead, 1 dr.; milk of sulphur, 2 drs.; rosewater, 4 fl. oz.; glycerine, 1 fl. oz. Mix. This is the general composition of the various popular hair-dyes and restoratives, which contain a yellowish sediment and are not oily.

Silver Hair-Dye.

Nitrate of silver, 1 oz.; water, 9 oz.; in blue bottle; sulphuret of potassium (fresh), 1 oz.; water, 8 oz., in white bottle. Moisten the hair first with the latter solution, and when dry add the silver solution.

Another. - Owing to the unpleasant smell of the mordant (white bottle) in the foregoing, a substitute is made by pouring boiling water, 1/2 pt., upon 3 oz. of bruised galls. When cold strain and bottle. For the blue bottle add to the solution, as above, ammonia, until the precipitate formed is redissolved.

Brown Dye.

To a saturated solution of sulphate of copper (blue vitriol), add ammonia until the precipitate which falls is redissolved. For a mordant, to be first applied, as above, use a saturated solution of ferrocyanide of potassium.

Orfila's Hair-Dye.

Take 3 parts of litharge and 2 of quicklime, mix thoroughly; keep in a well stopped bottle. When used mix with water or milk, apply to the hair, and envelope in an oil-skin cap fur 5 or 6 hours.

To remove Superfluous Hair.

Take of quicklime, 16 parts; pearlash, 2 parts; liver of sulphur, 2 parts. Mix thoroughly, and keep in a tight bottle. When used mix to the consistence of a paste, and after it has remained on 2 or 3 minutes remove with a wooden knife.

Another. - The following is more efficient, but must be used with care as it contains arsenic.

Take of freshly slaked lime, 8 oz.; orpiment, 1/2 oz. Mix thoroughly, and keep in well closed bottles. When used apply as a paste with water until it begins to burn the skin, and shave off with an ordinary paper-knife. The time required will vary with different hair. Black hair takes longer than fair. All of the depilatories sold are founded upon the two foregoing receipts.

Toilet Powders

Are made of starch variously scented. Many of the powders and lotions sold contain bismuth which will sometimes blacken.

Violet Powder.

Wheat starch, 12 lbs.; powdered orris-root, 2 1/2 lbs.; oil of lemon, 1/2 oz.; oil of bergamot, 1/4 oz.; oil of cloves, 2 dr. Mix.

Bloom of Roses.

Dissolve 1/4 oz. of cinnamon in 1/2 oz. of strong ammonia; after 2 days add 1 pt. rose-water, and 1/2 oz. Esprit de Rose (triple). Mix and set aside for a week. Then pour off the liquid from any sediment that may be present.

Pomade a la Rose.

Take white grease, 1 lb.; nut-oil, 3 1/2 oz.; spermaceti, or white wax, 1 1/3 oz. Melt together and add the oil. Pass the warm mixture through a clean cloth, and then stir it in a mortar till cold. If the pomade must be white, add no coloring matter; but if colored introduce the proper material. For red, soak 1/2 dr. of powdered alkanet in the oil previously warmed. For yellow, add 1/4 or 1/2 dr. of annotto to the mixture of grease, when melted. Pass through a clean cloth, and perfume with essence of geranium, 1 1/4 dr.; essence of rose, 1/4 dr.; essence of canella, 1-16 dr. Introduce the essences into the grease half fluid.

Economical Pomade.

Take white grease, 2 lbs.; essence of bergamot or lemon, 1 1/2 dr.; essence of cloves, 1 dr. Color with alkanet or carmine lake.

Pomade of Bitter Almonds.

Take pure white grease, 2 lbs.; natural essence of bitter almonds, 1 1/2 dr.; essence of lemon, cedrat, or Portugal, 1 1/2 dr.

Pomade Canadienne.

Melt over a water bath, 4 lbs. of bear's grease and infuse 8 lbs. of rose leaves, as directed for the Pomade a la Rose. Then strain, and perfume with essence of mint, 1/2 oz.; essence of rose, 1 oz.; essence of vanilla, a few drops. Color rose with a little carmine.

Pomade Divine.

Beef marrow, 3 lbs.; put it into an earthen vessel and cover it with cold water, and change the water daily for a few days, using rose-water the last day. Pour off and press out the water, add to the marrow 4 oz. each of the styrax, benzoin and Chio turpentine; 1 oz. orris powder; 1/2 oz. each of powdered cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg. Let the vessel in hot water, and keep the water boiling for 3 hours; then strain.

Stick Pomatum.

This pomade is generally composed of mutton suets, but is sometimes made of hard body, to which is added, in summer, 1 oz. of wax for every pound of body. Lard body can also be used, but the proportion of wax must be increased. In this preparation always melt the least fusible body first. In moulding care must be taken not to run the pomade while too hot, as cavities will occur in the centre, rendering the sticks liable to break.

To perfume the usual odors are, for 1 lb. of pomade, essence of bergamot, lavender, thyme, orange-peel, of each 1 dr. Color with annotto or saffron.

Another method of preparing this pomade, also called cosmetic, is by melting 2 parts of tallow and 1 part of wax, in sheet-iron moulds, the size desired for the stick, the mass having been perfumed and colored.

Philicomes and Cosmetics.

Philicomes and cosmetics are composed in winter, of equal parts of lard and earthnut oil, and in summer, of 2 parts of grease and 1 part oil. The greases are melted over a water-bath, and passed through a cloth. When the products begin to solidify the oils are added, and the mass is then run into jars or bottles. For the fine pt. philicomes, the pommades a la rose, orange-flower, au bouquet, geranium, a la tubereuse, etc., are substituted for the lard.

Beef Marrow Philicome.

Take fat, 10 lbs.; pommade a la rose, aux millefleurs, 1 lb.; oil of cassia, 2 lbs.; oil of jasmine, 2 lbs.; spirit of roses 1 2/3 oz.; bergamot, 5 drs.; spirit of petit-grain, 2 1/2 drs.; spirit of geranium, 2 1/2 drs.; spirit of wintergreen. 4 drs.; infusion of cinchona, 5 drs.; pure rum, 10 drs.; essence of roses, 5 drops.

Macassar Oil.

Take oil of benzoin, 8 qts.; oil of noisette, 4 qts.; alcohol, 1 qt.; essence bergamot, 3 oz.; spirit of musk, 3 oz.; spirit of Portugal, 2 oz.; essence of roses, 2 drs. Mix, and keep the whole over a water-bath for 1 hour. Then digest for a week, stirring several times daily. Color with alkanet.


Mix in a mortar gum arabic, 2 oz.; white honey, 6 oz. Reduce to a thick mass and add 3 oz. of neutral white soap. This being gradually incorporated, add 2 oz. of fresh coldpressed oil of sweet almonds, and finally, the yolks of 5 eggs.

The paste has a firm consistence, and is reduced by a thick milk of pistachio, made of fresh peeled pistach nuts, 4 oz.; distilled rose-water, 4 oz. Aromatize with 1/2 dr. of bitter almonds for 1 lb. of paste. A small portion, with a little warm water, produces a white lather of agreeable odor. This composition is used to whiten and soften the skin.

Cold Cream, No. 1.

Take of spermaceti and white wax, each 5 drs.; almond oil, 10 oz. Liquefy over a water-bath; pour into a marble mortar, heated by boiling water, stir quickly, and add 3 1/2 oz. of rose-water, 15 grs. essence of roses, and a few drops of potash lye.

Camphor Cold Cream.

Take of almond oil and rose-water, each 1 lb.; wax and spermaceti, 1 oz.; camphor, 2 oz.; Otto of rosemary, 1 dr.

Lotion for Freckles.

Take of corrosive sublimate, 5 grs.; muriatic acid, 30 drops; lump sugar, 1 oz.; alcohol, 2 oz.; rose-water, 7 oz. Agitate together till all is dissolved. Apply night and morning.

Another. - Take of sal ammoniac, 2 drs.; cologne water, 1 oz.; soft water, 1 pint. Mix.

Milk of Roses.

Melt together in a stoneware vessel over a waterbath, spermaceti, white wax, and soap, each 1 oz. Rub in a marble mortar bitter almonds, 2 oz.; sweet almonds, 1 lb. Take out 3/4, and on the remaining 1/4 pour the above mixture, and continue rubbing. Then add by degrees the other 3/4 of the almonds, always pestling, so as to incorporate thoroughly. In a white glass bottle mix distilled water, 1 qt.; rose-water and spirit of rose, each 1/2 pt. Reserve 1 pt., and gradually pour the mixture first made into the remainder. Rub, and strain through a cloth, then return the residuum to the mortar, triturate it with the reserved mixture, strain, and mix with the other liquid.

Kalydor for the Complexion.

Take blanched bitter almonds, 1 part; rose-water, 16 parts. Mix and strain, then add 5 grs. of bichloride of mercury to every 8 oz. bottle of the mixture, and scent with rose or violet.

Pomade for Chapped Lips.

Take oxide of zinc, 1 oz.; lycopodium powder 1 oz.; pomade rosat, 2 lbs. Mix, and make into a perfectly homogeneous pomade.

This is an excellent remedy for chapped lips and is beneficial in cases of ulceration of the nails of the feet.

Heliotrope Sachet.

Powdered orris, 2 lbs.; rose leaves, ground, 1 lb.; Tonqua beans, ground, 1/2 lb., Vanilla beans, 1/4 lb.; grain musk, 1/4 oz.; otto of almonds, 5 drops. Well mix by sifting in a coarse sieve, it is fit for sale.

Lavender Sachet.

Lavender flowers, ground, 1 lb.; gum benzoin, in powder, 1/4 lb.; otto of lavender, 1/4 oz.

Millefleur Sachet.

Lavender flowers, ground, orris, rose leaves, benzoin, each, 1 lb.; cinnamon, allspice, each, 2 oz.; tonqua, vanilla, santal, each, 1/4 lb.; musk and civet, each, 2 drs.; cloves, ground, 1/4 lb.

Portugal Sachet.

Dried orange peel, 1 lb.; dried lemon-peel, 1/2 lb.; dried orris-root, 1/2 lb.; otto of orange-peel, 1 oz.; otto of neroli, 1/4 dr.; otto of lemon-grass, 1/4 dr.

Rose Sachet.

Rose heels, 1 lb.; santal wood, ground, 1/2 lb.; otto of roses, 1/4 oz.

Santal Wood Sachet.

This is a good and economical sachet, and simply consists of the ground wood. Santal wood is to be purchased from some of the wholesale dry-salters; the drug-grinders are the people to reduce it to powder for you - any attempt to do so at home will be found unavailable, on account of its toughness.

Vervaine Sachet.

Lemon peel, dried and ground, 1 lb.; lemon thyme, 1/4 lb.; otto of lemon-grass, 1 dr.; otto of lemon-peel, 1/2 oz.; otto of bergamot, 1 oz.

Violet Sachet.

Black-currant leaves, rose leaves, each, 1 lb.; powdered orris-root, 2 lbs.; oil of bitter almonds 1/2 dr.; grain musk, 1 dr.; tonqua beans and gum benzoin, each, 1/2 lb. Mix thoroughly and keep together a week before offering for sale.

Perfume for Mouth Washes.

Asarum Canadense, orris root, each 1 oz.; strong alcohol, 1 pt. Make a tincture and add tincture of musk, 1 dr.; essence of millefleurs, 1/2 dr.; essence of patchouli, 20 drops.

A Superior Mouth Wash.

A close imitation of the popular sozodont. It cleanses the mouth thoroughly and is destructive to the parasites found in the deposits on the teeth. Add white castile soap, 2 drs.; alcohol, 3 fl. oz.; honey, 1 oz.; perfume as above, 4 fl. oz. Dissolve the soap in the alcohol, and add the honey and perfume.

Frangipanni Sachet.

Take orris-root and rose-leaves, each 1 lb.; sandalwood, 1/4 lb.; Tonqua beans, 1/4 lb.; musk, 1 dr.; civet, 1/4 dr.; essence of roses, 1/2 dr. Triturate the musk, civet, and essence of roses, and mix with the other substances reduced to a powder.

Peau d-Espagne, or Spanish Skin.

Is merely highly-perfumed leather. Take of oil of rose, neroli, and santal, each 1/2 oz.; oil of lavender, verbena, bergamot, each 1/4 oz.; oil of cloves and cinnamon, each 2 drs. In this dissolve 2 oz. of gum benzoin; in this steep good pieces of waste leather for a day or two, and dry it over a line. Prepare a paste by rubbing in a mortar 1 dr. of civet with 1 dr. of grain musk, and enough gum tragacanth mucilage to give a proper consistence. The leather is cut up into pieces about 4 inches square; two of these are pasted together with the above paste, placed between 2 pieces of paper, weighted or pressed until dry. It may then be inclosed in silk or satin. It gives off its odor for years; is much used for perfuming paper.

Indian or Yellow Pastils.

Santal-wood, in powder, 1 lb.; gum benzoin, 1 1/2 lbs.; gum tolu, 1/4 lb.; nitrate of potassa, 1 1/2 lbs.; otto of santal, otto of cassia, otto of cloves, each 3 drs.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s., to make the whole into a thick paste. The benzoin, santalwood, and tolu are to be powdered and mixed by sifting them, adding the ottos. The nitre, being dissolved in the mucilage, is then added. After well beating in a mortar the pastils are formed in shape with a pastil mould, and gradually dried.

The Chinese josticks are of a similar composition, but contain no tolu. Josticks are burned as incense in the temples of the Buddhist, in the Celestial Empire, and to such an extent as greatly to enhance the value of santal-wood.

Dr. Paris's Pastils.

Benzoin, cascarilla, each 1/4 lb.; myrrh, 1 1/4 oz.; charcoal, 1 1/2 lb.; otto of nutmegs, otto of cloves, each 3/4 oz.; nitre, 2 oz. Mix as in the preceding.

Perfumer's Pastils.

Well-burned charcoal, 1 lb.; tolu, vanilla pods, cloves, each 1/4 lb.; benzoin, 3/4 lb., otto of santal, otto of neroli, each 2 drs.; nitre, 1 1/2 oz.; benzoin, 3/4 lb.; otto of santal, otto of neroli, each 2 dr.; nitre, 1 1/2 oz.; mucilage of tragacanth, q. s.

Piesse's Pastils.

Willow charcoal, 1/2 lb.; benzoic acid, 6 oz.; otto of thyme, otto of caraway, otto of rose, otto of lavender, otto of cloves, otto of santal, each 1/2 dr. Prior to mixing dissolve 3/4 oz. nitre in 1/2 pt. of distilled or ordinary rose-water; with this solution thoroughly wet the charcoal, and then allow it to dry in a warm place. When the thus nitrated charcoal is quite dry, pour over it the mixed ottoes, and stir in the flowers of benzoin. When well mixed by sifting (the sieve is a better tool for mixing powders than the pestle and mortar), with enough mucilage to bind the whole together, and the less that is used the better.

Cachou Aromatise.

Take of extract of liquorice and water, each 3 1/2 oz.; dissolve by the heat of a water-bath, and add Bengal catechu, in powder, 462 grs.; gum arabic, in powder, 231 grs. Evaporate to the consistence of an extract, and then incorporate the following substances, previously reduced to fine powder: Mastic, cascarilla, charcoal, and orris-root, each 30 grs. Reduce the mass to a proper consistence, remove it from the fire, and then add English oil of peppermint, 30 drops; tincture of ambergris and tincture of musk, each 5 drops; pour it on an oiled slab, and spread it out, by means of a roller, to the thickness of a sixpenny piece. After it has cooled, apply some folds of blotting-paper, to absorb any adhering oil, moisten the surface with water, and then cover it with the sheets of silver-leaf. It must now be allowed to dry, then cut into very thin strips, and these again divided into small pieces, about the size of a fenugreek seed.


Hard soaps are made by boiling oils or fats with a lye of caustic soda. In soft soaps the lye is potash. Resin is used in yellow soaps, as it saves fat. Silicate of soda is now frequently used instead; it gives a white soap, which has no offensive smell, and has not the stickiness of resin soap. Prentiss' Washing and Scouring Solution is pure silicate of soda. Besides refuse fat, the palm and cocoa-nut oils are largely used as a basis for soap. Castile soap is made from olive oil, and is mottled by iron.

Soft Soap.

Add 3 galls. of rain or other soft water to 1 lb. of saponified or concentrated lye; boil it and put into it 4 lbs. of tallow or soap-fat. When the solution becomes clear, add 12 galls. more of water. It is ready for use when cold.

Scented Soaps.

Cut the soap into thin shavings, and heat it with enough water until liquefied. Let it cool to 135° Fahr., and add the coloring matter and perfumes.

Almond Soap.

To 1 cwt. of the best hard curd soap add 20 of oz. oil of bitter almonds, or essence of Mirban (p. 291).

Rose Soap.

Put into a copper vessel, placed in boiling water, 20 lbs. of white curd soap and 30 lbs. of olive oil soap, both cut into thin shavings; add 5 lbs. of soft water, or rosewater; keep the heat below boiling until the soap is uniformly liquified, and then add 12 oz. of finely-sifted vermillion, or enough to give the required color. Withdraw from the fire and, when sufficiently cool, add 3 1/2 oz. otto of roses, 1/2 oz. oil of cloves, 1/2 oz. oil of cinnamon, and 2 1/2 oz. oil of bergamot. For cheap soap use less perfume.

Honey Soap.

White curd soap, 1 1/2 lbs.; Windsor soap, 1/2 lb. Cut into shavings and liquefy as before directed, then add 4 oz. of honey, and keep it melted until most of the water is evaporated. Perfume with any of the essential oils.

Floating Soaps.

Are made by beating up soaps, liquefied as before directed, so as to incorporate a certain quantity of air.

Transparent Soaps

Are made by dissolving white soap in alcohol and evaporating. By the use of a still most of the alcohol may be recovered. They are made round by moulding with a drinkingglass, and then are known as wash-balls.

Glycerine Soap.

Cut the soap into fine shavings, dry, and powder it. Dissolve in a mixture of equal parts of alcohol and water by the aid of a water-bath. When the greater part of the alcohol has been evaporated, add a corresponding quantity of glycerine.

Windsor Soap.

White tallow scraps, 20 lbs.; essence of bergamot, 1 oz.; carvi, 6 drs.; cloves, 4 drs.; thyme, 1/2 oz.

Saponaceous Cream of Almonds (Creme d' Amandes ameres.)

The preparation sold under this name is a potash soft soap, made with lard and perfumed with essential oil of almonds. It has a beautiful pearly appearance, and makes an excellent lather with a brush, and has met with an extensive demand as a shavingsoap, especially in Paris. It is prepared thus: Take of fine clarified lard, 7 lbs.; potash lye, containing about 26 per cent. of caustic potash, 3 lbs. 12 oz.; rectified spirit, 2 oz.; essential oil of almonds, 2 drs. Melt the lard in a porcelain vessel, by a salt-water bath or a steam-heat under 15 lbs. pressure, then run in the lye very slowly, agitating continually from right to left during the whole time, when about half the lye is run in the mixture begins to curdle; it will, however, finally become so firm and compact that it cannot be stirred, if the operation is successful. The soap is now finished, but is not pearly; it will, however, assume that appearance by long trituration in a mortar, gradually adding the alcohol, in which is previously dissolved the perfume.

Tooth Powder.

Take precipitated chalk and powdered orris-root, each 1 lb.; carmine and powdered sugar, each 15 grs.; essence rose and essence neroli, each 60 grs.

Tooth Paste.

Honey, precipitated chalk, powdered orris-root, each 8 oz.; tincture of opium, tincture of myrrh, each 1 3/4 drs.; essence of rose, cloves, and nutmeg, each 1/2 dr.

Charcoal Tooth Powder.

Finely powdered charcoal, sugar, each 2 oz.; oil of cloves, 6 drops.

Another. - Finely powdered charcoal and red Peruvian bark, each 2 oz.; sugar, 1 oz.; oil of spearmint, 8 drops.

Charcoal Tooth Paste.

Finely powdered charcoal, white honey, and vanilla candy, each 2 oz.; red bark, 1 oz.; oil of rose or mint, 8 drops. Mix the whole into a paste.


In making these the vinegar known as No. 8 may be used. Vinegar of 25 to 30 per cent. is required to dissolve essential oils.

Tarragon (Estragon) Vinegar.

Tarragon (Artemesia dracunculus), 1 lb.; strong vinegar, 1 gal. The herb should be gathered before blossoming. This may be diluted when used.

Vinaigre aux fines herbes.

Tarragon, 12 oz.; basil, laurel leaves, each, 4 oz.; shallots, 2 oz.; strong vinegar, 1/2 gal. Let them soak for a week or two, and strain. It is too strong for use, but is added to table vinegar to improve its flavor.

Cologne Vinegar.

Add to each quart of cologne water, 1 oz. of No. 8 vinegar.

Aromatic Vinegar.

Concentrated acetic acid, 8 oz.; oil of English lavender, 2 drs.; oil of English rosemary, 1 dr.; oil cloves, 1 dr.; oil of camphor, 1 oz.

Henry's Vinegar.

Dried leaves of rosemary, rue, wormwood, sage, mint, and lavender flowers, each 1/2 oz.; bruised nutmeg, cloves, angelica root, and camphor, each, 1/4 oz.; alcohol, rectified, 4 oz.; concentrated acetic acid, 16 oz. Macerate the materials for a day in the spirit; then add the acid, and digest for a week longer, at a temperature of about 70° Fahr. Finally, press out the now aromatized acid, and filter it.

Vinagre des quatre Voleurs, or Four Thieves' Vinegar.

Take fresh tops of common wormwood, Roman wormwood, rosemary, sage, mint, and rue, of each 3/4 oz.; lavender flowers, 1 oz.; garlic, calamus aromaticus, cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg, each 1 dr.; camphor, 1/2 oz.; alcohol, or brandy, 1 oz.; strong vinegar, 4 pts. Digest all the materials except the camphor and spirit, in a closely covered vessel for a fortnight, at a summer heat, then express and filter the vinaigre produced, and add the camphor previously dissolved in the brandy or spirit.

Hygienic Vinegar.

Brandy, 1 pint; oil of cloves, 1 dr.; oil of lavender, l dr.; oil of marjoram, 1/2 dr.; gum benzoin, 1 oz. Macerate these together for a few hours, then add brown vinegar, 2 pts.; and strain or filter, if requisite, to be bright.

Toilet Vinegar (a la Violette).

Extract of cassia, 1/2 pt.; extract of orris, 1/4 pt.; esprit de rose, triple, 1/4 pt.; white wine vinegar, 2 pts.

Toilet Vinegar (a la Rose).

Dried rose leaves, 4 oz.; esprit de rose, triple, 1/2 pt.; white wine vinegar, 2 pts. Macerate in a close vessel for a fortnight, then filter and bottle for sale.

Camphorated Vinegar.

Camphor, 6 drs.; alcohol 2 oz.; strong vinegar, 1 lb. Powder the camphor, by the aid of the alcohol, in a mortar, and add the vinegar.